Noam Kroll of IndieWire recently wrote an excellent article on the art of writing a logline. The logline is a one to two sentence description of your film that you will use to pitch your story idea to agents, managers, and producers. The logline is also an essential tool in developing your story.
Here’s what Kroll has to say:
Let’s quickly look at the most important components of a log line. Ultimately, you need to get across the following information:
- The protagonist (don’t use their names, just description — for example ‘An alcoholic surgeon…’)
- The goal of the protagonist (this is usually in line with your 2nd act turning point — ‘An alcoholic surgeon must fight for his job…’)
- The antagonist (and the obstacle of the antagonist — ‘An alcoholic surgeon must fight for his job after a disgruntled patient accuses him of malpractice…’)
We also need to recognize how these components fit into the structure. As I said before, there are numerous formats you can use, and you should always adjust this to suit your particular story. But this structural formula is a great starting point:
When [INCITING INCIDENT OCCURS], a [SPECIFIC PROTAGONIST] must [OBJECTIVE], or else [STAKES].
While it may be tempting to simply take the formula above and plug in the details of your story, I would highly advise against it as it will never yield the best results. You will really want to take this one step further using the technique that I’ve outlined below, which involves working backwards to find the essence of your story. This isn’t a technique I created myself, but it is the one that by far has given me the most consistent results.
The method itself is extremely simple. You ask 4 questions about the story of your film starting from the end and working your way to the beginning. It should also be noted that when using this formula you generally don’t want to give away the third act, but rather tease the third act with points from the first and second. In other words none of your questions should pertain to anything after the 3rd act break.
When I came across this method, the example of “Back To The Future” was used, so I’ll reference it here verbatim. Here are the questions that were asked and their subsequent answers:
- How can Marty come back from the past? (He has to reunite his parents)
- Why did he have to reunite his parents? (Because he has changed the past which drove them apart)
- Why did he change the past? (Because he accidently distracted his mother from noticing and falling in love with his father)
- Why did he find himself in the past? (To save his skin using the invention of a crazy scientist)
Now that you have your answers you can construct a rudimentary outline of what will eventually become your log line:
“A young man, to save his skin, hides in the past thanks to the invention of a crazy scientist. He meets his future parents and accidently distracts his mother from noticing and falling in love with his father. So he is forced to bring them together or he will cease to exist.”
The key is of course to make it less clunky and more focused, leaving us with something like this:
“A young man is transported to the past where he must reunite his parents before he and his future are no more.”
The Who, What, When, Why and How will always force us to explain the most important parts of the story, which is why this method works so well. It’s not an exact science and it’s of course still up to you to decide which questions are most important to ask, but I find that as long as you ask questions related to the turning points in your story, you’ll be fine. For instance, your first question should be pertinent to the 3rd act break and the final question might relate to your opening image or catalyst moment. Following these general rules will put you in the best possible position to understand the fundamentals of your screenplay.